Expert Network Time Protocol: An Experience in Time with NTP is a superb NTP reference.
If you review the thousands of Internet RFCs, you'd be hard pressed to find a protocol that lends itself to philosophical overtones, save for one -- the Network Time Protocol (NTP). The nature of time is abstract, difficult to measure and highly subjective. Yet time is a critical element in everyone's life, and in the effective operations of corporate networks."
NTP is built on top of the TCP/IP protocol suite and is used to ensure accurate time-keeping with a trusted time reference. These references can be radio signals, GPS satellites, atomic clocks, Internet-based time servers and more. NTP is powerful enough to synchronize network clocks with millisecond accuracy.
In Expert Network Time Protocol: An Experience in Time with NTP, Peter Rybaczyk merges the philosophical aspects of time with the nuts of bolts of the NTP protocol. The book is composed of two parts, the first concerned with the meta-philosophy of time, and the second detailing the inner workings of NTP. The attempt in part one to merge technology and science with philosophy is a daunting task, and most often does not succeed. The notable exception to this is Douglas Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid.
Rybaczyk creates Sam, a fictional character who walks through the history of time. It is unclear who this Sam is -- whether he is supernatural being, or someone who got root on a time server. The author writes that the transcendental nature of time and the nuts and bolts of NTP are inseparable, but I personally found it difficult to determine what message part one was meant to convey. Fortunately, part one takes up but the first 34 pages.
Where the book shines, and where most readers will find value, is in part two, which details how to effectively design, configure, deploy and operate NTP. Where part one is conceptual, part two is extremely practical. Chapter 3 opens up with a comprehensive overview of the what, how and why effective time-keeping via NTP is needed.
The book details from a business perspective why synchronized and accurate time is a universal need. From transactional integrity, airline departures, sporting events, job shift changes, to FedEx pickups and more, nearly every activity requires time synchronization to work at peak levels. Effective network administration also requires time synchronization for network login procedures, directory synchronization, backups, and routing stability to work accurately.
From an information security perspective, password and digital ID synchronization, log file accuracy and auditing, and access control security are just a few of the areas where correct time can mean the difference between success and failure.
Where time synchronization is crucial, though, is in the realm of digital forensics. An otherwise painstaking digital forensic process might be worthless if time-related evidence from network devices is not correctly synchronized. If network devices are not correctly synchronized, you can basically forget about using them in any type of legal case.
Attorney Ronald Coleman, partner and computer law litigator at the New Jersey-based Coleman Law firm explains that in a computer law case involving serious discrepancies in network log times, the prosecution would conceivably drop the case. Similarly, a civil case to recover damages from an attacker is seriously undercut by these seemingly innocuous timing mistakes. "The network managers' lack of diligence at ensuring that the time was synchronized on their systems," explains Coleman, "opens them up to serious questions in front of a jury as to whether the logs and the system data are reliable at all -- especially with a gap of more than a couple of minutes, which might be explained away by which clocks were being relied on." In fact, an error of this magnitude would make the entire network administration suspect. That could be a disaster, Coleman says, where the network tracing record plus the human beings who sloppily set the automation in motion are going to be the chief sources of evidence against the alleged computer criminal. "A snafu such as seriously unsynchronized logs is just the sort of opening that could raise the level of doubt needed to undermine the other side's case."
Chapter 3 concludes with an interesting look at the cutting edge of time protocols, specifically the Interplanetary Internet. The Interplanetary Internet project is an attempt to synchronize computer time within the realm of deep space. NASA will in due time establish a deep space infrastructure whose purpose is to support the communication needs of multiple missions. Such an infrastructure would require time synchronization, but within a radically different framework from what exists today. The Interplanetary Internet and its underlying time synchronization are intended to solve that.
Chapter 4 brings the reader back to earth and provides vital information about how to design an effective NTP architecture. The key to designing the most appropriate NTP architecture for a given infrastructure is to first understand the different modes that NTP devices can operate in. The chapter details the five different NTP modes, the mode categories, and gives configuration information about each mode.
The chapter also provides information about NTP security. While NTP versions 3 and 4 provide added security (including symmetric private key cryptography and support of the Autokey protocol), it is ultimately up to the organization to determine what level of NTP security they need. Those organizations that don't require accurate time won't need much NTP security. But for those organizations who business requires synchronized and accurate time, such issues will drive the implementation of how they deploy NTP and its security functionality.
Chapter 5 details how organizational motivations (again, from a business perspective) will affect how you design your NTP architecture, and then describes several use scenarios. The book notes that designing an effective NTP deployment is a process that embodies four key steps: choosing a time source, deciding upon the NTP topology, determining the NTP features to configure, and then monitoring and managing the NTP operations. The chapter then goes on to describe various ways these steps can be carried out. The chapter provides a comprehensive overview on how to deploy NTP, be it on a dedicated time server, via already deployed products such as Cisco or Juniper routers, or on Unix/Linux/Windows file servers.
It is important to note that NTP is just the protocol. The actual implementation of NTP requires separate software client and server applications. The book focuses on the protocol and does not get into any specific vendors, other than a few screen shots from the configuration menu of a Symmetricom time server.
The author notes that on the surface, NTP is simple and almost inconspicuous, and overshadowed by better-known protocols such as HTTP, FTP and DNS. But once you start digging into NTP, you are dealing with one of the most pervasive elements of existence, namely time. Within NTP's scope, one could be dealing with atomic clocks, GPS satellites, clock selection, encryption algorithms and much more. So while at its heart, NTP may be a simple protocol, there is a complex infrastructure beneath it.
NTP is one of the most fundamental, yet overlooked services in the TCP/IP suite, and time synchronization is one of the most overlooked areas in networking. Hopefully, a book such as this can spark a renaissance. For far too long, time synchronization has not been afforded due diligence, and the effects have at times been disastrous. A view of the archives of the Risk Forum digest attests to this fact.
After a somewhat murky start in part one, Expert Network Time Protocol: An Experience in Time with NTP provides the reader with a superb synopsis of nearly everything he needs to know about NTP and effective time synchronization on his network, from an experienced implementer in the field. It is a fascinating look at one of the most humble, yet fundamental protocols on the Internet. For those who care about the correct time on their network, this book is required reading.