Marc Joye received his Ph.D. degree in applied sciences (cryptography) from the Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, in 1997. In 1998 and 1999, he was a post-doctoral fellow of the National Science Council, Taiwan. From 1999 to 2006, he was with the card security group Gemplus (now Gemalto), France. From 2006 to 2016, he was with Technicolor (formerly Thomson R&D), France and USA. Since 2016, he has been with NXP Semiconductors, USA.